Error bars (basic)

Error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data and are used on graphs to indicate the error, or uncertainty in a reported measurement. They give a general idea of how precise a measurement is, or conversely, how far from the reported value the true (error free) value might be. Error bars often represent one standard deviation of uncertainty, one standard error, or a certain confidence interval (e.g., a 95% interval).

Add error bar used R

loading data

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plot(mpg~disp,data=mtcars)

verticality error bars

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arrows(x0=mtcars$disp,
y0=mtcars$mpg*0.95,
x1=mtcars$disp,
y1=mtcars$mpg*1.05,
angle=90,
code=3, #drawing an arrowhead at both ends
length=0.04,
lwd=0.4)

结果如下:

horizontal error bars

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arrows(x0=mtcars$disp*0.95,
y0=mtcars$mpg,
x1=mtcars$disp*1.05,
y1=mtcars$mpg,
angle=90,
code=3,
length=0.04,
lwd=0.4)

结果如下:

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